“Phoenicians” was the name given to this people by the Greeks, but the Phoenicians continued to refer to themselves as Canaanites or by the names of their principal cities. They were manned [completely] from bow to stern with valiant warriors bearing their arms, soldiers of all the choicest of Egypt, being like lions roaring upon the mountain-tops. Section 107, the material on this site is distributed without profit. This approach may allow greater conformance with the array of facts discovered about the Sea Peoples and the events of this time. There they were met by the armies of Ramses III and a great battle was fought—with a second battle being fought in the Nile Delta—according to descriptions on his funerary temple at Medinet Habu in Thebes.[xli]. And since the Sea Peoples were Phoenicians, that must mean the Lydianswere these Phoenicians. (Compare, for example, the small shrine at Sarepta to the Bronze Age temples from Beth Shan.) They had, by now, desolated much of the Late Bronze Age civilizations and were ready to make a move on Egypt. How "People of the Sea" Came to Be The Egyptians originally coined the name "Peoples of the Sea" for the foreign contingents that the Libyans brought in to support their attack on Egypt in c. 1220 BC during the reign of Pharaoh Merneptah. That there was a relationship or partnership of some nature between the Sea Peoples and the Phoenicians is clearly in evidence. 4, pp. [xxxvii] Bryce, The Kingdom of the Hittites, pp. On what he surmised about the Phoenician, Wells told National Geographic: “Apparently they didn’t interbreed much. Besides the headdresses and biblical references, archaeological data suggest the appearance of a new group along the coast. [xli] Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt, vol. And this was long before the coming of the Greeks. One thing is for certain, Phoenician was not what they called themselves. [xv] Singer, Itamar “New Evidence on the End of the Hittite Empire” The Sea Peoples and Their World: A Reassessment (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Museum, 2000), pp. [Source: Mark Millmore, discoveringegypt.com ^^^], Pierre Grandet wrote: “Athough the king prevented the invasion of Egypt by the Sea Peoples, their migration forever changed the geopolitical landscape of the ancient Near East and seems to have been a key factor in this mutation by gradually depriving Egypt of any control of its former Asiatic territories. From around 2000 BC, people living close to the Mediterranean Sea, such as the MINOANS, Mycenaeans, and PHOENICIANS, built strong wooden ships powered by sails and oars. Language: english. Ten centimeters tall and dated to 1600 B.C. [xxxvi] Sandars, The Sea Peoples, p. 197. |*|, “The Philistine pentapolis came under control of David and remained generally part of Judah or Israel for most of the 10th and probably part of the ninth century. Later Peoples of the FertileCrescent: Sea PeoplesSocial Studies for 8th E.G.B. Experts differ over exactly how many battles were fought between Ramses and the Sea Peoples, as well as where they were fought. Such material is made available in an effort to advance understanding of country or topic discussed in the article. [vi] Zangger, Eberhard “Who Were the Sea People?” Saudi Aramco World 46:3 (Houston, 1995), pp. An Egyptian wall painting from 1900 B.C. He admitted that the similarity between Mycenaean and Philistine pottery did not begin until a later date—the middle of the 12th century BC—and not at the beginning of that century when the Sea Peoples migration took place. The Ugarit alphabet was passed on to the Semitic tribes of the Middle East, which included the Phoenicians, Hebrews and later the Arabs. Among his other accomplishments were revived trade with the Land of Punt, reestablishing law and order throughout the country and launching a tree planting campaign. From the 9th to 6th centuries B.C. We have some idea what the Canaanites looked like. and mixed with local Canaanites to create the Phoenicians. The price of grain had already become a hardship—and then it had tripled in cost. tablet with column of Canaanite words was found at Ashkelon. This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been authorized by the copyright owner. From the best that can be ascertained the Phoenicians were a mix of peoples and states that eventually became a people of their own. Since Hattusa was defeated by the Sea Peoples, the Sea Peoples must have taken the place over. [i] Surprisingly for such a pivotal moment in world history, the origin and identity of the Sea Peoples are still widely debated. They were not powerful, but they were a trade- based society. In the Bible the Philistines were characterized as thugish destroyers. ‘The foreign countries plotted on their Islands and the people were scattered by battle all at one time and no land could stand before their arms.’, Pierre Grandet wrote: “In year eight, Egypt was faced with another threat of invasion—this time on its Mediterranean shore and its northeastern frontier—by a group of peoples of probable heterogeneous ethnicity, but whom the Egyptians clearly perceived as a kind of confederation of related tribes. The Phoenicians: Mysterious Sea People (Ancient Civilizations) As pointed out by Wachsmann,[xvi] some groups among them may have joined simply due to greed. Maria Eugenia Aubet, a leading Phoenician expert at Pempeu Fabra University in Barcelona, told National Geographic: “I think they became friends, Phoenician material culture shows so many elements from the Sea Peoples. In fact the greatest campaigns the Sea Peoples would mount were by land. they dominated the Mediterranean Sea by extending a string of colonies throughout the region. [xlii] Wachsmann, “To the Sea of the Philistines”, p.122. Soldt, W. H. van "Ugarit: A Second-Millennium Kingdom on the Mediterranean Coast." Their origins undocumented, the various Sea P… In the civil war era, Maronite Christians claimed they were they descendants of Phoenicians and the Muslims were not. The Phoenicians managed to spread their influence because they ventured beyond their homeland both physically and intellectually to explore the world and the riches it had to offer. Therefore the assumption was made that the Sea Peoples were Mycenaeans. On the link between the Sea People and Phoenicians, Maria Eugenia Aubet, a leading Phoenician expert at Pempeu Fabra University in Barcelona, told National Geographic: “I think they became friends, Phoenician material culture shows so many elements from the Sea Peoples. As the Amarna letters showed, however, that protection was somewhere between weak and non-existent, with raiders coming into Phoenician lands unimpeded.[xxii]. There is therefore much continuity in Phoenician traditions from the Late Bronze Age until the Hellenistic period around 300 B.C.” \^/. The Sea Peoples are a purported seafaring confederation that attacked ancient Egypt and other regions of the East Mediterranean prior to and during the Late Bronze Age collapse (1200–900 BCE). Their aim now, was to defeat the Egyptian navy and force an entry up the river. |Recent excavations at Ashdod, Ashkelon, Tell Miqne (Ekron), Tell esh- Sharia (Ziklag) and Tell Qasile are amplifying our understanding of this intrusive Aegean culture. But at that point the model failed. Sites, such as Ain Shems and even Sarepta, provide additional information on related cultures (e.g. Perhaps the best and most unambiguous way to answer this question is to separate the winners from the losers in this epic series of battles. 4, pp. Artifacts unearthed at Byblos have been dated to 5000 B.C. 1208 BC — King Merneptah of Egypt turned back an incursion by the Sea Peoples and Libyans at the Nile Delta. Canaan objects, excavated by archaeologists include an 18.5-inch-long ivory horn with gold bands, circa 1400 B.C., unearthed at Megiddo in present-dat Israel, and a vessel with the Egyptian hawk-god Hyksos, unearthed in Ashkelon. [xl] Many settled beside the wheat fields and took some of the land for themselves and their families. Mark Millmore wrote in iscoveringegypt.com: “The Sea Peoples were on the move. ), the last great pharaoh of Egypt, is best known for defeating the Sea Peoples — a combination of several different peoples that some historian gave birth to the Phoenicians. In Civilizations of the Ancient Near East, vol. I think someone was probably cooking the puppy for food but never came back for it.” Stager thinks the puppy was buried in a pot that was already charred to bring good fortune for the building it was buried under. [xii] Moscati, Sabatino The World of the Phoenicians (Italian, translated into English by Weidenfeld and Nicolson) (London: Orion Books, 1999/1968), pp. Ashkelon was located in present-day Israel, 60 kilometers south of Tel Aviv, and dates back at least to 3500 B.C. One was that both Muslims and Christians in Lebanon were descendants of Phoenicians. The Canaanites were the earliest inhabitants of Lebanon according to written historical records. Phoenicians 1. Please login to your account first; Need help? In 1208 BC they sailed to Egypt in small numbers, estimated at 5000 warriors,[xxvii] and attacked the successor to Ramses: king Merneptah. For example, they invented the phonetic alphabet; they were the first great maritime civilization whose people: were innovators in terms of maritime trade, navigation, sailing and shipbuilding. [viii] They not only showed there was no widespread destruction at that time, there was also great continuity from layer to layer, indicating that the local society continued to live in the same way throughout this period. And if we check the page for Lydia, we find this: Some of them had been known to the Egyptians as sea-raiders and mercenaries since the reign of Akhenaten, in the 18 th Dynasty, and took to plundering the Nile Delta and other parts of the Mediterranean in the following centuries. Also, as noted earlier, refugees from the shattered Mycenaean world would eventually come to live among the Sea Peoples, though they did not begin to arrive in Cyprus and Palestine until the latter part of the 12th century BC.[xliii]. Sea Peoples and Phoenicians along the Southern Phoenician Coast – A Reconciliation: An Interpretation of Šikila (SKL) Material Culture. By around 1100 B.C. Ancient Phoenicians, known for their Purple colors, command of the Sea, and the Traders of the Mediteranian, Creators of such famed ports as Sidon, home of … The Sea Peoples, on land, were defeated and scattered but their navy continued towards the eastern Nile delta. II, Part 2, pp.359-378. This paper attempts to interpret group identities along the Canaanite coast in the Early Iron Age, beginning with an analysis of functional and symbolic properties of ceramics. The next step in probing the mystery of the Sea Peoples is to examine the economic and environmental factors cited by Philip C. Betancourt[xiii] and others as being the primary cause of the mass migration of the Sea Peoples. To do this they joined with the Egyptians’ western neighbors, the Libyans, and mounted an attack on the Nile Delta. They were one of about a half dozen or more Sea People that arrived in the eastern Mediterranean in the 12th century B.C. Although the Phoenician people retained a great deal of independence under this arrangement, they were subjected to heavy demands for tribute which was theoretically buying Egyptian protection. The Phoenicians would have had every reason to fear an imminent campaign southward by the Hittites. The word Palestine was coined by the Romans and derived from Philistia, or "land of the Philistines." 28-29. The Phoenician people had been dominant sea traders in the Mediterranean prior to 1500 BC[xvii],[xviii] and in some cases had partnered with others to maintain that position. Their main support was Peleset, Thekel (Tjeker), Shekelesh, Denyen, and Weshesh. As a result of assembling and examining these many scattered facts about the Sea Peoples, which had been documented in separate studies by noted scholars, a larger picture has emerged. Some of the them, including the biblical Philistines and the Phoenicians — both of whom are regarded as descendants of the Sea Peoples — settled in Palestine and The Levant respectively. In 603 B.C. The Sea Peoples’ constant affiliation with all things ship and sea orientated must add some impetus 9 to this argument. Save for later. The burial pot and the position of the dead, it is thought, was intended to replicate the position of a newborn in a womb ready to be reborn into the afterlife. By the 2nd millennium bce they had colonies in the Levant, North Africa, Anatolia, and Cyprus. The Origin of the Sea Peoples is founded on my publication 'The Early Minoan Colonization of Spain'. "Hopefully our findings and other continuing research will cast further light on the origins and impact of Phoenician peoples and their culture," said Matisoo-Smith.”, Image Sources: Wikimedia Commons, The Louvre, The British Museum, Bardo Museum. He also pointed out that widespread disruption of this system of distribution could have caused a collapse of the society and a descent into warfare and migration. Their Phonetic language and alphabet was the result of a need to amalgamate the various languages of the Mediterranean of the various peoples that constituted their sea-fairing nation; North Africans, siardinians, Sicilians, Porto Etruscans, Iberians, etc. Studies of their teeth indicate they ate a lot sand in their food and their teeth wore down quickly.”. [ix] This likewise was quite conclusive. The conquest of canaan according to the bible and the t.e.a.t. Among the cities they created were these in Morocco: Lixis (modern Larache), Sala (Rabat), Mogador (Essaouira) and Tingis (Tangier); in Spain: Gadir (Cadiz), Malaka (Malaga), Ibisa (Ibiza); in Algeria: Icosia (Algiers); in Tunisia: Utica and Carthage, both now gone; in Sardinia: Karalis (Cagliari); in Sicily: Panormus (Palermo); in Cyprus: Kition (Larnaca). The main current theory advanced to explain the origin and actions of the Sea Peoples has been described by Eliezer D. Oren[iii] as “the collapse of the two great empires of that day—the Hittite in Anatolia and the Mycenaean in Greece—brought about their (peoples’) mass migrations to the coastlands of the Levant and Cyprus.” The collapse of those two empires was basically laid to economic and environmental factors. 37-39. Looked outwards towards the sea to expand. 1255–66.. New York: Scribner, 1995. The Sea Peoples were a confederacy of naval raiders who harried the coastal towns and cities of the Mediterranean region between c. 1276-1178 BCE, concentrating their efforts especially on Egypt.They are considered one of the major contributing causes to the Bronze Age Collapse (c. 1250-c.1150 BCE) and were once regarded as the primary cause. In the brutal hand to hand fighting which ensued the Sea People are utterly defeated. Confined to a narrow coastal strip with limited agricultural resources, maritime trade was a natural development. Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, Metropolitan Museum of Art, October 2004, metmuseum.org\^/], "With the decline of Egyptian influence about 1200 B.C., the cities were freed from foreign domination. the Egyptians expelled the Hyksos and dominated Ashkelon and Canaan. Among the interesting things that archaeologists have dug up in Ashkelon from the Philistine period are a large winery with a storehouse and a burial ground for dogs. The religious evolution in the israelite nation; The worship of the baal "Ugarit", Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, October 2004, In time the Greeks and Romans would rise and they—together with the often overlooked Phoenicians—would sow the seeds of Western civilization. However the peoples of western and northern Anatolia were not members of the Hittite world, and in fact were frequently at war with that empire and with the Mycenaeans. Later Peoples of the FertileCrescent: Sea PeoplesSocial Studies for 8th E.G.B. was a time of economic prosperity for these trading centers. Even today, historians and archaeologists can't quite agree on who was a part of this diverse group. With the Hittites threatening their northern border, the Phoenicians would reasonably have supported whichever groups among Sea Peoples wanted to shift attacks away from the failed effort at Egypt and toward a more promising one against the Hittites. ), the Biblical era of the Judges, the two peoples most adversely affected by the military and naval power of the Sea Peoples were the Israelites and the Phoenicians (coastal Canaanites). The island city of Tyre and the city of Sidon were the most powerful states in Phoenicia with Gebal/ Byblos and Baalbek as the most important spiritual/religious centers. 1267-1279. The Phoenicians: Mysterious Sea People (Ancient Civilizations) | Katherine Reece | download | Z-Library. As Egyptian and Near Eastern documents record, the Late Bronze Age (1550–1200 B.C.) [iii] Oren, Eliezer D. “Introduction” The Sea Peoples and Their World: A Reassessment (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Museum, 2000), p. xvii. The ultimate collapse of Egyptian power in the region occurred about 1175 B.C. The Phoenicians: Mysterious Sea People (Ancient Civilizations) Katherine Reece. [xxxiv] McDonald and Thomas, Progress into the Past: The Rediscovery of Mycenaean Civilization, p. 459. But when the Sea Peoples arrived on Levantine shores, the clever Phoenicians paid them off — or at least that’s what historians have surmised. For nearly a century in the second millennium B.C., a mysterious band of maritime warriors known as the “Sea Peoples” wreaked havoc on the Mediterranean. But the net result was that the Sea Peoples were finally stopped in their southward movement. The Phoenicians, who spread not only their goods and religion across the Mediterranean Sea but also their alphabet across the world, were famous for their ships and purple die. However the Hittites were preoccupied by problems at home and put off action in this direction. [Source: Pierre Grandet, 2014, UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology, 2013 escholarship.org <>]. Send-to-Kindle or Email . Some archeologist and historians believe a mysterious group known as the Sea People---perhaps ancestors of the Minoans---might have migrated to Lebanon around 1200 B.C. [xxvii] Wood, Michael In Search of the Trojan War (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998), p. 219. [ix] Markoe, Glenn Peoples of the Past: Phoenicians (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000), p. 24. During this time the Hittites continued to press southward. Later some of the Philistine city states exercised independence from the descendants of Jacob. Some archaeologists have speculated that the were Phoenicians, but there is no conclusive proof of this. Stager believes the Philistines were Greeks. The Exodus; The Philistines and “Sea People” Not the Same Entity; Who were the habiru; The period of the judges; Who were the phoenicians according to herodotus and diodorus siculus? The city also sat astride an important north-south coastal trade route linking Anatolia and Egypt. At Ashkelon (see Below) Canaanite families placed corpses in burial chambers and kept them there until the flesh rotted off, a process that took several months, then they would bury the bones in recesses and corners of the chambers. For example, they invented the phonetic alphabet; they were the first great maritime civilization whose people: were innovators in terms of maritime trade, navigation, sailing and shipbuilding. The word Phoenician is what the ancient Greeks called the Semitic inhabitants of the eastern Mediterranean coastland. But why was this particular moment chosen for exploding into action? They carried with them the Mysteries of the Cabiri wherever they went. I believe that it was the Druids who came to Ireland, Britain and France and replaced the Phoenician bards or in name only. The bad rap the Philistines get seems to be based on the fact hat they fought with the Israelites for the better part of two centuries. Sarepta (modern Sarafand) between Tyre and Sidon was similarly the subject of detailed archaeological study. Canaanite Ashkelon covered 60 hectares. According to the Bible, the ancient Canaanites, were idol worshipers who practiced human sacrifice and engaged in deviant sexual activity. [Source: Rick Gore, National Geographic January 2001]. ", “The discovery sheds some new light on the history of the Phoenicians, who are thought to have originated in Lebanon and spread across the Mediterranean. Price New from Used from Library Binding "Please retry" $9.70 . The quick-strike raids in the Aegean and across the southern coast of Anatolia seem particularly of this nature, given that delivering settlers into those areas does not seem to have been the prime motivation. The Sea Peoples were the Proto-Phonecians. they, like the Hebrews, were conquered by the Assyrians. To illustrate the problem clearly, Itamar Singer[xv] cited texts from the Emar region which state there was a year of hardship in which three qa of grain cost one silver shekel. A Second-Millennium Kingdom on the paper presented by Sanford Holst at Al University. Were warriors, and colonizers who probably arrived from the descendants of.. Origins undocumented, the small shrine at Sarepta to the Hittites, 76... At Al Akhawayn University in Ifrane, Morocco on June 28, 2005 a... Flow of wheat to incredible levels Barnett, “ to the Phoenicians in! Force around 1100 B.C. an the next great Canaanite city to arise Ebla. Was similarly the subject of detailed archaeological study adversaries had been taken from the Libyans and. A hardship—and then it had tripled in cost which were mounting upon the Phoenicians the., p. 76 on land been considered previously remains of a mound or tell lie... For themselves and their families and increasing pressure to take some form of necessary action Ancient times, Lydia in. Greeks, Romans, Byzantines and Crusaders p. 459 corresponding to modern Lebanon, with parts... Frontier in Zahi, prepared before them the civil war era, Maronite Christians claimed they were also beneficiaries. Were an Ancient people who conquered lower Kingdom of the coast. UK: Aris & Phillips, 1978,. They carried with them the Mysteries of the Hittites, lie half mile. P. 459 of Spain ' city by the Sea Peoples is founded on my publication 'The early Minoan of. ( Near Ugarit ) skeleton could rewrite history of human migration, Katherine ] Amazon.com! Coastal strip with limited agricultural resources, maritime trade was a land known as the land for themselves their!, such as Ain Shems and even Sarepta, provide additional information related. Their every limb, ready of hand similar to Phoenicians in some.... 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