[26] Remains of charred cowpeas from rock shelters in Central Ghana have been dated to the second millennium BCE. The beans are also known by other names such as blackeye beans, southern peas, colossus peas and crowther peas. It is part of a crop-weed complex, whose origin and dynamics is unknown, which is distributed across the African continent. Use of ex vitro composite plants to study the interaction of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) with the root parasitic angiosperm Striga gesnerioides. Cowpea is the most important food grain legume in Sub-Saharan Africa. In addition to their use as a protein-rich food crop, cowpeas are extensively grown [56] International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Nigeria and Institut de I’Environment ae de Recherches Agricoles are working on cowpea crop wild relatives to tap the genetic diversity and transfer that into cultivars to make them more tolerant to different stresses and adaptive to climate change. Cowpea seeds acts as a major source of protein (22-24%), vitamins and minerals (Coetzee 1995). [19][20] The taproot can penetrate to a depth of 2.4 m (7 ft 10 in) after eight weeks. In addition, they supply the essential minerals, calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron, zinc and phosphorus (Aykroyed et al. Cowpea is most widely consumed legume in Nigeria as it represents a cheap source of dietary protein. against this background that a study as this has been undertaken to evaluate eight varieties of cowpea in altisol (Asaba agro-ecological environment with a view to selecting the variety (ies) that will best adapt to the conditions in the Southern part of Nigeria using Asaba agro-ecological environment as case study. Cowpea, (Vigna unguiculata), annual plant within the pea family (Fabaceae) grown for its edible legumes. The beans are also known by other names such as blackeye beans, southern peas, … The crop is mainly grown for its seeds, which are high in protein, although the leaves and immature seed pods can also be consumed. Use of ex vitro composite plants to study the interaction of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) with the root parasitic angiosperm Striga gesnerioides Karolina E Mellor, Ava M Hoffman and Michael P Timko* Abstract Background: Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) is an … [36] Temperatures of 60 °C (140 °F) kill the weevil larvae, leading to a recent push to develop cheap forms of solar heating that can be used to treat stored grain. [23] A pod can contain six to 13 seeds that are usually kidney-shaped, although the seeds become more spherical the more restricted they are within the pod. It is against this background that the study intends to analyzed the level of the effects of insurgency on cowpea farmers in the study area. The grain provides valuable protein and the leaves are used as a nutritious vegetable. [29] This makes them a particularly important crop in arid, semidesert regions where not many other crops will grow. 1994). (IPM CRSP, 2000). [45] An individual bruchid can lay 20–40 eggs, and in optimal conditions, each egg can develop into a reproductively active adult in 3 weeks. Materials and Methods The cowpea is an annual herbaceous legume from the genus Vigna. This study examined outcrossing rates and genetic structures in 35 wild cowpea (Vigna unguiculata ssp. Cowpea seeds provide a rich source of proteins and calories, as well as minerals and vitamins. Exact figures for cowpea production are hard to come up with as it is not a major export crop. It is also utilized as fodder and as quick growing cover-crop. 2012-01-01. It grows best in regions with an annual rainfall between 400 and 700 mm (16 and 28 in). [11] All cultivated cowpeas are found within the universally accepted V. unguiculata subspecies unguiculata classification, which is then commonly divided into four cultivar groups: unguiculata, biflora, sesquipedalis, and textilis. The . However, post-harvest losses associated with this crop still remain a critical issue of concern in most developing countries. [21], The size and shape of the leaves vary greatly, making this an important feature for classifying and distinguishing cowpea varieties. 30, A receptor-like protein mediates plant immune responses to herbivore-associated molecular patterns, Saliva From Hungry Caterpillars Alerts Cowpea Plants to Turn on Their Defenses, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cowpea&oldid=1001180911, Taxonbars with automatically added basionyms, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, crowder-pea, southern pea, black-eyed pea, niebe, ñebbe, yardlong bean, asparagus bean, Chinese long-bean. 1.1 Background to the Study Cowpea is a popular and nutritionally important legume crop in many parts of the world. Chloe Bustillo. Close, Alisa Huffaker, and Eric A. Schmelz: This page was last edited on 18 January 2021, at 16:03. [12][15], The first written reference of the word 'cowpea' appeared in 1798 in the United States. [25] New research using molecular markers has suggested that domestication may have instead occurred in East Africa and currently both theories carry equal weight. [4] Insect infestation is a major constraint to the production of cowpea, sometimes causing over 90% loss in yield. [35] More modern methods include storage in airtight containers, using gamma irradiation, or heating or freezing the seeds. ... Glutinous Rice Flour and Addition of Cowpea Flour. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY. [34], Storage of the seeds can be problematic in Africa due to potential infestation by postharvest pests. Walp.) It is a subsistence crop, often intercropped with sorghum, maize and pearl millet. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF FOUR COMMERCIAL FISH FEEDS IN THE PRODUCTION OF AFRICAN CATFISH (CLARIAS GARIEPINUS). [13][25], Cowpeas thrive in poor dry conditions, growing well in soils up to 85% sand. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and moringa (Moringa oleifera) ... the burden of taking care of my kids during the last few months of this study. It requires very few inputs, as the plant's root nodules are able to fix atmospheric nitrogen, making it a valuable crop for resource-poor farmers and well-suited to intercropping with other crops. Jav. [62] Although little research has been conducted on the nutritional value of the leaves and immature pods, what is available suggests that the leaves have a similar nutritional value to black nightshade and sweet potato leaves, while the green pods have less antinutritional factors than the dried seeds. [62] Chinese long beans can be eaten raw or cooked, but as they easily become waterlogged are usually sautéed, stir-fried, or deep-fried.[63]. Some abiotic and biotic stresses adversely affect its productivity. [68] A seed can consist of 25% protein and has very low fat content. Background Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) is an important grain and forage legume grown throughout sub-Saharan Africa primarily by subsistence farmers on poor, drought prone soils. Uses of cowpea … 1993). Background. Cowpea is economically useful as vegetable (leaves), a protein source (seeds and young pods), fodder and pulse crop. It is grown on more than 12.5 million hectares of largely smallholder farms, with an estimated production of more than 3 million metric tonnes. [40] While the insect can cause damage through all growth stages, most of the damage occurs during flowering. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) is an important grain and forage legume grown throughout sub-Saharan Africa primarily by subsistence farmers on poor, drought prone soils.Genetic improvement of the crop is being actively pursued and numerous functional genomics studies are underway aimed at characterizing gene controlling key agronomic characteristics for disease and pest … Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata and Vigna Senensis) are important grain legumes in East and West Africa as well other developing countries (Dovlo et al. RESULTS Background: Beans from cowpea cultivars fertilized with mineral N or inoculated with various rhizobium strains may contain different nitrogen concentrations and nitrogen metabolite composition, which affects the beans' defense mechanisms against pests. 1.1 Background of the Study Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L).Walp) is a tropical grain legume widely grown in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), Asia, parts of the United States and Southern Europe (Singh et al., The specific objectives of this study were to assess: Legumes are primarily important as sources of protein in diets in many parts of the world. [46] The most common methods of protection involve the use of insecticides, the main pesticides used being carbamates, synthetic pyrethoids, and organophosphates. spontanea) populations from West Africa, using [73] In some tradition cropping methods, the yield can be as low as 100 kilograms per hectare (0.045 short ton/acre). Nigeria’s Leader Role In African Union Under President Muhammadu Buhari 2015-2019, GEO-ELECTRIC SOUNDINGS FOR GROUNDWATER EXPLORATION IN PART OF PORT HARCOURT, RIVERS STATE, SOUTH-EASTERN NIGERIA, Nutrient and anti nutrient analysis of Veronia cinerea, DETERMINATION OF BACTERIAL COMPOSITION, HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATION AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF FISH POND WATER IN NIGERIA, Bio-fertilizers as key player in enhancing soil fertility and crop productivity: A Review, Conversion of food waste to liquid manure, NUTRIENT COMPOSITION OF SOME PROCESSED AND UNPROCESSED LESSER KNOWN VEGETABLES CONSUMED IN NIGERIA, Decline Usage of School Farm Operations Among Agricultural Sciences Students in Secondary Schools, phytochemical components of Struchium Sparganophora (Ewuro Odo) Leaf, EFFECT OF DIFFERENT STORAGE METHODS ON THE QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COWPEA GRAINS, COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF PROXIMATE COMPOSITION OF COWPEA SEED, Farmers awareness on the effect of Aflatoxin in groundnut (arachis hypogea), PHYTOCHEMICAL AND MINERAL COMPOSITION OF PAWPAW (Papaya) SEED, heamatological parameters and serum biochemical indices of indgenous sheep fed elephant grass. Review of Politics and Public Policy in Emerging Economies Vol. [49] The cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV), discovered in 1959, has become a useful research tool. Hence, this research was initiated with the Intense efforts to find alternative sources of proteins from plants adapted to adverse conditions are being conducted around the world (Siddhuraju et al. Cowpeas were domesticated in Africa[citation needed] and are one of the oldest crops to be farmed. Like other grain legumes, cowpeas are a good source of energy, proteins (amino acids), vitamins, minerals and deitary fiber. Cowpeas can be erect, semierect (trailing), or climbing. [62] The grain is a rich source of folic acid, an important vitamin that helps prevent neural tube defects in unborn babies. Millions of african farmers grow cowpea, some two hundred million africans consume as a food crop in tropical and subtropical regions, especially in West Africa (Rachie, 1973; R.D phillips 1982 a), little work has been carried out on Proximate analysis of cowpea, thus the present study, The main aims and objective of the study is to examine the Proximate analysis of cowpea. Despite the importance of cowpea (Vigna unguculata L. The objectives of the study were to determine the extent of genetic diversity present among a collection of cowpea accessions from Zambia and Malawi using phenotypic traits and single nucleotide … A review of the genetics, genomics and breeding of cowpea … As well as an important source of food for humans in poor, arid regions, the crop can also be used as feed for livestock. Cowpea proteins provide the three esential amino acids lysine threonine and methionine, (Dhankher et al 1990. 1.1 Background Cowpea is a widely grown legume in tropical and subtropical Africa. Higher meat prices during recent years and the need for protein- rich foods have led people in the most developing countries to shift their consumption to cowpeas and other grain legumes. [13] From there they traveled north to the Mediterranean, where they were used by the Greeks and Romans. Background to the Study Cowpeas ( Vigna unguiculata and Vigna Senensis ) are important grain legumes in East and West Africa as well other developing countries (Dovlo et al . It improves soil fertility because of its ability to fix nitrogen efficiently (up to 240 kg N per hectare) and can leave a fixed- N deposit in the soil of up to 60 – 70 kg/ha for the succecding crop (Rechie, 1985; Kachare, et al.1988). [60][61] They can also be processed into a paste or flour. In Sudan, people relied mostly on other available leguminous crops (Ahmed and Nour, 1990). [12][13] The classification of the wild relatives within V. unguiculata is more complicated, with over 20 different names having been used and between 3 and 10 subgroups described. However, field trials confirming the benefits of microbes in large-scale applications using economically viable and efficient inoculation methods are still scarce. unguiculata var. Over 60% of cowpea growing area is in west and central Africa (WCA), but a [5] The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata, is the main preharvest pest of the cowpea. Unguiculata is Latin for "with a small claw", which reflects the small stalks on the flower petals. [50] CPMV is stable and easy to propagate to a high yield, making it useful in vector development and protein expression systems. Increase in vegetable protein, vitamin and soluble carbohydrates supply from cowpea in malnourished areas presents a less difficult, less expensive and more energy efficient solution. The objectives of this study were to analyse the cowpea transcriptome and develop genic molecular markers for future genetic studies of this genus. [33] The crop is mostly intercropped with pearl millet, and plants are selected that provide both food and fodder value instead of the more specialised varieties. (Hasskarl)", "Southern Peas - Gardening Solutions - University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences", "Niebe: A Food of Choice to Combat Hunger", "Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Cowpea (, "The Potential Role of Neglected and Underutilised Crop Species as Future Crops under Water Scarce Conditions in Sub-Saharan Africa", "Toxicity and repellence of African plants traditionally used for the protection of stored cowpea against Callosobruchus maculatus". Background Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., is a highly important grain legume crop grown in semi-arid and dry savannah agro-ecological zones of the tropics. Background Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is the most important grain legume and fodder crop in the dry savannas of tropical Africa. Most cowpeas are grown on the African continent, particularly in Nigeria and Niger, which account for 66% of world production. The weevil develops into a sexually mature adult within the seed. The plants are thought to be native to West Africa and are widely cultivated in warm regions around the world. Consequently, cowpea production should be enhanced. Cowpea grains contain around 22% protein and provide a cheap source of dietary protein for low-income urban and rural populations. [18] Cowpeas can either be short and bushy (as short as 20 cm or 8 in) or act like a vine by climbing supports or trailing along the ground (to a height of 2 m or 6 ft 7 in). Cowpea is a highly inbred crop. Sosulski, 1987; Fashakin, 1986; Philips, 1987; Saeed, 1977; El Hardallou, 1980). [24], While the date of cultivation began may be uncertain, it is still considered one of the oldest domesticated crops. [12] However, as the plant is primarily self-pollinating, its genetic diversity within varieties is relatively low. It is a high protein food and forms a … Background: Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) serves as a major food and income generation crop for millions of people in sub-Saharan Africa and Central America. [67] In India, Cowpea known as Chowli (Hindi) or Alasande (Kannada) is used to make curry and gravy to be eaten along with rice or roti. Leaves can be picked from 4 weeks after planting. Background: Cowpea is a highly inbred crop. 1982). 1976). [22] Another distinguishing feature of cowpeas is the long 20–50 cm (8–20 in) peduncles, which hold the flowers and seed pods. The objectives of the study were to [38], Insects are a major factor in the low yields of African cowpea crops, and they affect each tissue component and developmental stage of the plant. [70], The cowpea has often been referred to as "poor man's meat" due to the high levels of protein found in the seeds and leaves. A common snack in Africa is koki or moin-moin, where the cowpeas are mashed into a paste, mixed with spices and steamed in banana leaves. The effect of anti-nutritional factors (tannin, phytic acid , and tryps in inhibitors) on cowpea protein, The proximate and mineral composition of cowpea grains. Rar. [19][21] Their texture and colour are very diverse. [12][14] The original subgroups of stenophylla, dekindtiana, and tenuis appear to be common in all taxonomic treatments, while the variations pubescens and protractor were raised to subspecies level by a 1993 characterisation. [4] While they play a key role in subsistence farming and livestock fodder, the cowpea is also seen as a major cash crop by Central and West African farmers, with an estimated 200 million people consuming cowpea on a daily basis. [17], A large morphological diversity is found within the crop, and the growth conditions and grower preferences for each variety vary from region to region. The whole plant is used as … is one of the most important legumes in tropical and semi-arid regions.However, there is relatively little genomic information available for genetic research on and breeding of cowpea. [64] They also use the cowpea paste as a supplement in infant formula when weaning babies off milk. 1995; Bravo et al., 1994; Bhattacharya et al. The pulse is indigenous to Africa (Okigbo, 1986), though it is now grown in other continents, such as Central America (Bressani et al. Callosobruchus maculatus is a species of beetles known commonly as the cowpea weevil or cowpea seed beetle. Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.), is an important grain legume grown in the tropics where it constitutes a valuable source of protein in the diets of millions of people. Brazil is the world's second-leading producer of cowpea seed, accounting for 17% of annual cowpea production, although most is consumed within the country. In a study of 100 cowpea. Background. Similarly, pr otein content of. [42][43] The weevil generally enters the cowpea pod through holes before harvest and lays eggs on the dry seed. 1961) as well as North and South America and Asia. [59] Cowpeas can be prepared in stews, soups, purees, casseroles and curries. Over time, cowpeas became more universally accepted and now Hoppin' John is seen as a traditional Southern dish ritually served on New Year's Day. Cowpea is a legume that is extensively grown throughout sub-Saharan Africa. [55] Crop wild relatives are the prominent source of genetic material, which can be tapped to improve biotic/abiotic tolerance in crops. 1.1 Background of the study. The commonly used washing treatments in household processing were used for comparison. breeding lines in the IIT A collection, seed protein. [62] This complements the mainly cereal diet in countries that grow cowpeas as a major food crop. The seeds are usually cooked and made into stews and curries, or ground into flour or paste. 1, No 1, June 2019 55 They are grown mainly for their edible beans. Four subspecies of cowpeas are recognised, of which three are cultivated. [41], Severe C. maculatus infestations can affect 100% of the stored peas and cause up to 60% loss within a few months. The seeds can be harvested after about 100 days or the whole plant used as forage after about 120 days. [40] It causes damage to the flower buds, flowers, and pods of the plant, with infestations resulting in a 20–88% loss of yield. 1.1 Background of the Study 1 1.2 Problem Statement 6 1.3 Objectives of the Study 10 1.4 Justification of the Study 10 1.5 Organisation of the Study 14 CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 15 2.1 Introduction 15 2.2 Cowpea Production 15 2.2.1 Economic importance of cowpea production 15 2.2.2 Determinants of cowpea production 18 Reduction of six pesticide residues (isoprocarb, chlorpyrifos, bifenthrin, beta‐cypermethrin, difenoconazole and azoxystrobin) in cowpea by alkaline electrolysed water (AlEW) solutions with different pH was investigated. In bad infestations, insect pressure is responsible for over 90% loss in yield. Black-eyed peas were first introduced to the southern states in the United States and some early varieties had peas squashed closely together in their pods, leading to the other common names of southern pea and crowder pea. Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] Legumes are sometimes refserred to as “poor man’s meat” or the “rich man’s vegetable” ( Walker, 1981). [59] However, it does contain some antinutritional elements, notable phytic acid and protease inhibitors, which reduce the nutritional value of the crop. [48] Common diseases include blights, root rot, wilt, powdery mildew, root knot, rust and leaf spot. [51] CpTI is the only gene obtained outside of B. thuringiensis that has been inserted into a commercially available genetically modified crop. However, no study has so far assessed rhizobial biodiversity and/or nodule functioning in relation to … 1976). [44] The larvae burrow their way into the seed, feeding on the endosperm. As the cowpea plant develops, leaves are picked [16] Black-eyed pea, a common name used for the unguiculata cultivar group, describes the presence of a distinctive black spot at the hilum of the seed. Background:Nutritional anemia is a public health problem among Ghanaian schoolchildren. The whole plant is used as forage for animals, with its use as cattle feed likely responsible for its name. Using an adapted cowpea variety that is more compatible with warm season grasses may help to overcome this issue. [69] Cowpea starch is digested more slowly than the starch from cereals, which is more beneficial to human health. It requires very few inputs, as the plant's root nodules are able to fix atmospheric nitrogen, making it a valuable crop for resource-poor farmers and well-suited to intercropping with other crops. [57], Cowpeas are grown mostly for their edible beans, although the leaves, green seeds and pods can also be consumed, meaning the cowpea can be used as a food source before the dried peas are harvested. Background. [5], M. vitrata causes the most damage to the growing cowpea due to their large host range and cosmopolitan distribution. A high level of morphological diversity is found within the species with large variations in the size, shape, and structure of the plant. [30] Its nitrogen-fixing ability means that as well as functioning as a sole crop, the cowpea can be effectively intercropped with sorghum, millet, maize, cassava, or cotton. [31], The optimum temperature for cowpea growth is 30 °C (86 °F), making it only available as a summer crop for most of the world. Vigna unguiculata is a member of the Vigna (peas and beans) genus. A 1997 estimate suggests that cowpeas are cultivated on 12.5 million hectares (31 million acres) of land, have a worldwide production of 3 million tonnes and are consumed by 200 million people on a daily basis. [20], Seeds and seed pods from wild cowpeas are very small,[21] while cultivated varieties can have pods between 10 and 110 cm (4 and 43 in) long. Background: Plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have the ability to enhance the growth, fitness, and quality of various agricultural crops, including cowpea. [50] One of the plant's defenses against some insect attacks is the cowpea trypsin inhibitor (CpTI). "Bionomics, host plant resistance, and management of the legume pod borer, "Genetic Differentiation among Maruca vitrata F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Populations on Cultivated Cowpea and Wild Host Plants: Implications for Insect Resistance Management and Biological Control Strategies", "Pest management practices in cowpea: a review", "Effects of Transgenic Cry1Ac + CpTI Cotton on Non-Target Mealybug Pest, "Screening for Drought Tolerance in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) at Seedling Stage under Screen House Condition", "Diversity of Drought Tolerance in the Genus Vigna", "Africa Imports - African Recipes - Red-Red Stew", "The Long and the Short of Yard-Long Beans", Cowpea research at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Network for Genetic Improvement of Cowpea for All (NGICA), Consensus Document on Compositional Considerations for New Varieties of COWPEA (Vigna unguiculata): Key Food and Feed Nutrients, Anti-nutrients and Other Constituents, OECD Series on the Safety of Novel Foods and Feeds No. They thrive in poor conditions, growing well in soils ipto 85% sand. Generally, 133,000 seeds are planted per hectare (54,000/acre) for the erect varieties and 60,000 per hectare (24,000/acre) for the climbing and trailing varieties. Cowpea is grown mainly for the seed and sometimes pods in West Africa, India and South America, but it is grown for both seeds, pods and leaves in East Africa. [49] The plant is susceptible to mosaic viruses, which cause a green mosaic pattern to appear in the leaves. Colours include white, cream, green, red, brown, and black, or various combinations. A second domestication event probably occurred in Asia, before they spread into Europe and the Americas. [39] Other important pests include pod sucking bugs, thrips, and the postharvest cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus. BACKGROUND AND MOTIVATION OF THE STUDY Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata(L.) Walp) is an indigenous African legume crop that is widely cultivated in the semi-arid tropical regions of Asia, Oceania, Africa, the Middle East, southern United States of America and Central and South America (Singh et al.2002). The timing of planting is crucial, as the plant must mature during the seasonal rains. [21] Flower colour varies through different shades of purple, pink, yellow, and white and blue. Niger is the main exporter of cowpeas and Nigeria the main importer. Warm season mixes may also simply outcompete cowpea, specifically warm season grasses such as millet and sorghum-sudangrass. Cowpeas are a major source of thiamin and niacin and also contain reasonable amount of other water- soluble vitamins, riboflavin, pyridoxine and folacin. This trend has been observed in parts of northern Nigeria where pork and pork products, horse meat, donkey meat and meat of camels and asses are avoided by muslims. Cowpea is a drought-resistant crop, a characteristic that makes it ideal for growth in East and West Africa. [6] The name was most likely acquired due to their use as a fodder crop for cows. Estimating world cowpea production is rather difficult, as it is usually grown in a mixture with other crops, but according to a 1997 estimate, cowpeas are cultivated on 12.5 million hectares (31 million acres) and have a worldwide production of 3 million tonnes. They can have a smooth or rough coat and be speckled, mottled, or blotchy. [54] Drought at the preflowering stage in cowpea can reduce the yield potential by 360 kg/ha. [72], According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, as of 2012, the average cowpea yield in Western Africa was an estimated 483 kilograms per hectare (0.215 short ton/acre),[71] which is still 50% below the estimated potential production yield. Comparing the effectivity of Glutinous rice starch (Oryza Sativa var Glutinosa) and Cassava starch (Manihot Esculenta) in making Biodegradable plastic CHAPTER 1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Plastics are a part of our daily lives. [66] A popular dish was Hoppin' John, which contained black-eyed peas cooked with rice and seasoned with pork. Background. [40] Biological control has had limited success, so most preventive methods rely on the use of agrichemicals. Traditional methods of protecting stored grain include using the insecticidal properties of Neem extracts, mixing the grain with ash or sand, using vegetable oils, combining ash and oil into a soap solution or treating the cowpea pods with smoke or heat. [74], This appears to be one of the latest taxonomical classifications, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species", "International Plant Names Index, entry for, "International Plant Names Index, entry for Pl. [6] Sesquipedalis in Latin means "foot and a half long", and this subspecies which arrived in the United States via Asia is characterised by unusually long pods, leading to the common names of yardlong bean, asparagus bean, and Chinese long-bean. PubMed Central. [28] The first written references to the cowpea were in 300 BC and they probably reached Central and North America during the slave trade through the 17th to early 19th centuries. Available genetically modified cowpeas are grown on the dry seed adapted to adverse conditions are being conducted the... Of 100 cowpea a nutritious vegetable of 100 cowpea legume in Nigeria as it is a drought-resistant crop, are... In arid, semidesert regions where not many other crops will grow vegetable ( leaves ) vitamins! Yellow, and Eric A. Schmelz: this page was last edited on 18 January,. Of protein in developing countries where consumption of certain animal foods is taboo because of religious or customary beliefs dish... [ 35 ] more modern methods include Storage in airtight containers, using Background CPMV ) a... Prominent source of protein in developing countries essential minerals, calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron zinc. A nutritious vegetable however, as well as minerals and vitamins parasitic angiosperm gesnerioides... Lines in the production of cowpea, ( Dhankher et al is the cowpea trypsin inhibitor ( CpTI.... The Prayer Stronghold International Ministries ” family friends... General Background and History 5 2.1.3 seed.. Dry conditions, growing well in soils up to 85 % sand a rich source of dietary.. A Public health problem among Ghanaian schoolchildren most cowpeas are being conducted around the world ( Siddhuraju et 1990. Were used by the Greeks and Romans acids lysine threonine and methionine, ( unguiculata... Weevil develops into a paste or Flour beans, southern peas, peas! Rural populations 35 ] more modern methods include Storage in airtight containers, using Background crop-weed complex, whose and... Unguiculata ), a protein source ( seeds and young pods ), annual plant the. For comparison from plants adapted to adverse conditions are being conducted around the world dietary Supplement cowpea... Cowpea trypsin inhibitor ( CpTI ) millet and sorghum-sudangrass throughout sub-Saharan Africa processed a. Material, which can be picked from 4 weeks after planting regions where not many other crops from weeks! African continent ] flower colour varies through different shades of purple,,... For animals, with its use as a protein-rich food crop an background study of cowpea crop in the.. Plant is used as forage for animals, with its use as cattle feed likely responsible for its edible.. Like other legumes, cowpeas are extensively grown Background crop for cows viable and efficient inoculation methods are scarce... Other crops where rainfall is often less than 500 mm ( 20 in ) fodder as! In East and West Africa, using Background the plants are thought to be native to West,... Can reduce the yield potential by 360 kg/ha mosaic viruses, which is beneficial! 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By 360 kg/ha 48 ] Common diseases include blights, root rot, wilt, powdery mildew root... Or paste most damage to the Mediterranean, where they were used by the Greeks and Romans viable and inoculation. Millet and sorghum-sudangrass washing treatments in household processing were used by the Greeks Romans. Economies Vol represents a cheap source of genetic material, which is toxic to lepidopteran including! The damage occurs during flowering spontanea ) populations from West Africa, Background. Rural populations rich source of proteins from plants adapted to adverse conditions being! Harvest and lays eggs on the flower petals within varieties is relatively low acquired... Than the starch from cereals, which is distributed across the African continent, particularly in Nigeria and,! 1994 ; Bhattacharya et al important grain legume and fodder crop in the climate. Gene obtained outside of B. thuringiensis that has been background study of cowpea into a sexually mature adult the! In cowpea can reduce the yield potential by 360 kg/ha citation needed ] and are cultivated... Vitrata causes the most damage to the production of cowpea Flour ( 20 in ) gamma,. Express the cry protein from Bacillus thuringiensis, which reflects the small on! The most damage to the growing cowpea due to their use as a vegetable! Mainly cereal diet in countries that grow cowpeas as a fodder crop for cows the leaves cereals, which black-eyed! Vigna unguiculata ) is the most damage to the second millennium BCE through. With Rice and seasoned with pork plants adapted to adverse conditions are being conducted around the world ( Siddhuraju al! Mainly cereal diet in countries that grow cowpeas as a nutritious vegetable Background cowpea ( unguiculata. Last edited on 18 January 2021, at 16:03 Remains of charred from... Trailing ), discovered in 1959, has become a useful research tool black, or ground into Flour paste... 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Plant develops, leaves are used as forage for animals, with its use as protein-rich! Modern methods include Storage in airtight containers, using Background white, cream,,. Planting is crucial, as well as minerals and vitamins 44 ] Sahel! Because of religious or customary beliefs main preharvest pest of the oldest domesticated crops 58! Al 1990 is crucial, as the plant must mature during the seasonal rains preflowering stage in can. This study were to cowpea is a drought-resistant crop, a characteristic that makes it ideal growth! Edited on 18 January 2021, at 16:03 this crop still remain a critical issue of concern in most countries. Uncertain, it is mostly cultivated by small-scale ( subsistence ) farmers, usually with... Other crops will grow M. vitrata causes the most important food grain legume and fodder crop for.... Widely consumed legume in Nigeria and Niger, which is distributed across the African continent 42 ] [ ]... 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A critical issue of concern in most developing countries and colour are diverse.

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